Shalya tantra a branch of Ayurveda which deals with Ayurvedic surgery and provides a basic understanding of the principles of modern surgery. Sushruta, the Ayurvedic surgeon of yore is revered today as the father of surgery. Area of strength in Ayurvedic surgery is management of vrana(wound).Surgery mainly deals with wounds so Maharshi shushruta has described a lot about vrana (wound)in his text and it’s treatment. Bhagna (fracture and dislocation) and it’s chikitsa (treatment), Kshar sutra use in many ano-rectal diseases like Arsha (haemorrhoids), Bhagandara(fistula in ano),Warts , tumors etc. Para surgical measures like Jalaukaavcharan(leech therapy), Alabu(cupping therapy), Agnikarma (cauterusation), Kshar karma for various diseases have been described in Shalya Tantra.
Though modern surgery has advanced in leaps and bounds, the Ayurvedic principles of pre and post operative care still has relevance today. Judicious application of Ayurvedic principles of surgical care can prevent complications and facilitate early recovery from surgical interventions. Ayurveda has historically made foundational contributions to the development of the branch of surgery. The practice of dissecting dead bodies to study anatomy, learning surgical procedures by practicing on dummies, development of sophisticated surgical instruments and the art of plastic surgery constitute the hallmark of classical Ayurvedic surgery.